Advanced Cardiovascular Panel:

NMR Lipid Profile:

The NMR LipoProfile test is an advanced cardiovascular diagnostic test that uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to provide rapid, simultaneous and direct measurement of LDL particle number and size of LDL particles, and also direct measurement of HDL and VLDL subclasses.

Homocysteine:

Homocysteine is an amino acid that is typically present in very small amounts in all cells of the body. That is because the body normally converts homocysteine into other products quickly. Since vitamins B6, B12, and folate are necessary to metabolize homocysteine, increased levels of the amino acid may be a sign of deficiency in those vitamins.

Elevated homocysteine may also be related to a higher risk for coronary heart diseasestroke, peripheral vascular disease (fatty deposits in peripheral arteries), and hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). High levels of homocysteine increase the risk of blood clot formation in vessels and may lead to heart attack and stroke. Several mechanisms have been proposed for how homocysteine leads to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but direct links haven not been confirmed. There are also several studies that indicate no benefit or lowering of CVD risk with folic acid and B vitamin supplements. So far, the American Heart Association does not consider it a major risk factor for heart disease. 

BNP:

Higher-than-normal results suggest that a person has some degree of heart failure, and the level of BNP or NT-proBNP in the blood is related to its severity. Higher levels of BNP or NT-proBNP are often associated with a worse outlook (prognosis) for the person.

Normal results indicate that the person's symptoms are likely due to something other than heart failure. 

Additional tests of cardiovascular function and status such as Coronary artery calcium score, Nuclear stress tests and Coronary angiogram are discussed elsewhere. 

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